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Pumping Unit Introduction

Pumping Unit Introduction

2019-08-16



Overview:

The pumping unit is a kind of machine for extracting oil. It is commonly known as the "head machine", which makes the oil out of the well by means of pressure. When the pumping unit is stroked, the oil pipe elastically contracts upwards, causing the mechanical unblocking oil recovery device to move upwards, and the impact sliding sleeve generates vibration; at the same time, the positive single-flow valve is closed, and the variable-diameter piston assembly is sealed with oil under the pumping unit. During the stroke, the elastic elongation of the oil pipe moves downwards, which drives the mechanical unblocking oil mover to move downwards, and the impact sliding sleeve generates vibration. At the same time, the reverse single-flow valve is partially closed, and the variable-diameter piston assembly still blocks the oil ring annular oil passage. The lower part of the reverse single flow valve forms a high pressure zone, which in turn creates a reverse impact on the oil flow passage in the formation.


Working principle:

The common pumping unit, that is, the beam pumping unit is a traditional oil pumping device widely used in oil fields, and is usually directly driven by a common AC asynchronous motor. The crank belt drives the sucker rod with the counterweight balance block, drives the downhole pump to make a fixed cycle of up and down reciprocating motion, and sends the oil downhole to the ground. In one stroke, the motor is operated in the electric/power generation state as the sucker rod rises/falls. During the ascending process, the motor absorbs energy from the grid and operates electrically; the load characteristic of the motor in the descending process is the potential load, and the downhole negative pressure causes the motor to be in the power generation state, converting the mechanical energy into electrical energy and feeding back to the grid.


However, the situation of underground oil layers is particularly complicated. There are rich oil wells and lean oil wells, and there are rare oil wells and heavy oil wells. Constant speed application problems are obvious. If you let go of these, the pumping oil pump itself, the loss of the gap between the piston and the bushing after wear is difficult to solve, and the changing formation factors such as sand, wax, water and gas in the oil. Complex conditions also have a large impact on the amount of oil pumped per stroke. It seems that only the speed control drive can achieve the best control.


After the introduction of the speed control transmission, the stroke frequency of the pumping unit can be adjusted according to the downhole condition and the speeds of the upper and lower strokes can be respectively adjusted, and the pump full load coefficient can be increased while reducing the leakage of the pump to obtain the maximum oil output. In particular, the use of frequency conversion speed regulation has no start-up impact, and can solve the problems of low power factor caused by conservative selection and long line, etc., and achieve energy saving and efficiency while improving the life of the whole machine. Especially the life of the oil pump, reducing mechanical failure and improving reliability.


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