Food, clothing, and shelter are considered as the basic amenities for living. With the advent of machineries and industries, petroleum and its products have now become the basic necessities for human existence. The dependence of man on the oil and gas industry is so much that without petroleum products, we may go back to the Stone Age.
Apart from petrol and diesel (which are used in automobiles) and gas (used for cooking), petroleum forms the raw material for many chemical and pharmaceutical products, fertilizers, and many other things. The usage of petroleum has a history of over 5000 years though in an unrefined form. The present day situation is that more than 60% of our energy requirements are fulfilled by oil and gas. The remaining 40% comes from other sources like coal, wind, sun, and water.
Oil and gas industry has a major influence on every aspect of global economy. Petroleum products such as petrol, diesel and gas are highly combustible, and release sulfuric, carbonic and nitric acid to the environment, which is a very dangerous thing.
Oil is a natural product found in the crust of the earth, which has to be extracted and processed to obtain different products. Holes of size varying from 5 to 50 inches are dug using a drilling rig to extract crude oil based on pressure technique. This oil is sent to refineries for further processing. When the yield becomes lesser, the wells are abandoned. Earlier Hydraulic fracking techniques were used to increase the extraction rate but of late this method is banned in some countries because of the impact it has on the environment.
Since every aspect of modern life has become dependent on petrol and petroleum products, it is important to know the origin of this multifaceted energy source. Petroleum is a fossil fuel formed by the remains of dead animals and other organisms. The formation of petroleum is a lengthy process which happens beneath the earth. Since the invention of petroleum products, its usage has spread to all areas.
Apart from this, the pollutants released by the oil refineries are very harmful to the atmosphere. Global warming is one of the effects of extraction of oil, usage of these fuels and the pollutants released by refineries.
Petroleum being a natural resource has a limited availability and is being extracted and used in different forms. It has to be used carefully to make it last longer or at least until alternative sources are found that can replace petroleum products.