A steel gasket is positioned between the top of the Christmas tree and the flange to keep in well pressures. Current models use optical encoders to derive the revolutions of a wheel with a known circumference, which in turn is used to figure speed and depth. Tractors are electrical tools used to push the toolstring into hole, overcoming wireline's disadvantage of being gravity dependent.
The software processes the gamma ray counts and sends the information uphole the place it processed by a computerized acquisition system, and plotted on a log versus depth. The information is then used to ensure that the depth proven on the log is appropriate. After that, energy could be applied via the software to set off explosive charges for things like perforating, setting plugs or packers, dumping cement, and so forth.
It also would not embody any water conditioning equipment for water that requires remedy. Water conditioning can add from $1,500 to $3,000 or extra to the nicely's value. However that does include a price- you need to sort out your personal water and power supplies. Especially if you're looking to embrace a 'live off the grid' way of life. Intermediate casing is normally the longest section of casing present in a nicely.
Casing collar locator instruments, or CCL's, are among the many simplest and most important in cased hole electric line. CCL's are sometimes used for depth correlation and can be an indicator of line overspeed when logging in heavy fluids. A CBT makes its measurements by quickly pulsing out compressional waves across the properly bore and into the pipe, cement, and formation.
Retrievable packers have a extra complicated design and generally decrease sealing and gripping capabilities, but after elimination and subsequent servicing, they can be reused. A manufacturing packer is designed to grip and seal towards the casing ID. Gripping is completed with metallic wedges known as 'slips.' These components have sharpened, carburized tooth that dig into the metallic of the casing. In conditions the place the sealed strain could be very excessive (above 5,000 psi), steel rings are used on both aspect of the elements to forestall the rubber from extruding. These figures do not embrace the nicely pump, the piping for water supply, pressure change, the storage tank or any plumbing from the well to the home site.
The main objective of intermediate casing is to reduce the hazards that come along with subsurface formations which will have an effect on the well. These embody abnormal underground stress zones, underground shale, and formations that may otherwise contaminate the well, corresponding to underground salt-water deposits. In many situations, although there could also be no evidence of an uncommon underground formation, intermediate casing is run as insurance in opposition to the possibility of such a formation affecting the nicely. These intermediate casing areas can also be cemented into place for added safety. A flange attaches to the highest of the Christmas tree, often with some sort of adapter for the remainder of the strain control.
These are used for in extremely deviated and horizontal wells where gravity is insufficient, even with curler stem. They push in opposition to the aspect of the wellbore either via the usage of wheels or through a wormlike motion. Gamma perforators operate in much the identical means as an open gap natural gamma ray software. Gamma rays given off from naturally occurring radioactive elements bombard the scintillation detector mounted on the device.
The compressional pulse originates in a transmitter at the top of the software, which, when powered up on surface feels like a rapid clicking sound. The device sometimes has two receivers, one three ft away from the receiver, and one other at 5 toes from the transmitter.